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Solar Panel

Original price was: ₹60.00.Current price is: ₹50.00. Sell Tax

Solar Panel

Description

https://pmsuryaghar.gov.in/

A solar panel is a device that converts sunlight into electricity by using photovoltaic (PV) cells. PV cells are made of materials that produce excited electrons when exposed to light. The electrons flow through a circuit and produce direct current (DC) electricity, which can be used to power various devices or be stored in batteries. Solar panels are also known as solar cell panels, solar electric panels, or PV modules.

Solar panels are usually arranged in groups called arrays or systems. A photovoltaic system consists of one or more solar panels, an inverter that converts DC electricity to alternating current (AC) electricity, and sometimes other components such as controllers, meters, and trackers. Most panels are in solar farms, which supply the electricity grid as can some rooftop solar.

Some advantages of solar panels are that they use a renewable and clean source of energy, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and lower electricity bills. Some disadvantages are that they depend on the availability and intensity of sunlight, require cleaning, and have high initial costs. Solar panels are widely used for residential, commercial, and industrial purposes, as well as in space, often together with batteries.

History
See also: Solar cell § History, and Timeline of solar cells
In 1839, the ability of some materials to create an electrical charge from light exposure was first observed by the French physicist Edmond Becquerel. Though these initial solar panels were too inefficient for even simple electric devices, they were used as an instrument to measure light.

The observation by Becquerel was not replicated again until 1873, when the English electrical engineer Willoughby Smith discovered that the charge could be caused by light hitting selenium. After this discovery, William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day published “The action of light on selenium” in 1876, describing the experiment they used to replicate Smith’s results.

In 1881, the American inventor Charles Fritts created the first commercial solar panel, which was reported by Fritts as “continuous, constant and of considerable force not only by exposure to sunlight but also to dim, diffused daylight”. However, these solar panels were very inefficient, especially compared to coal-fired power plants.

In 1939, Russell Ohl created the solar cell design that is used in many modern solar panels. He patented his design in 1941. In 1954, this design was first used by Bell Labs to create the first commercially viable silicon solar cell.

Solar panel installers saw significant growth between 2008 and 2013. Due to that growth many installers had projects that were not “ideal” solar roof tops to work with and had to find solutions to shaded roofs and orientation difficulties. This challenge was initially addressed by the re-popularization of micro-inverters and later the invention of power optimizers.

Solar panel manufacturers partnered with micro-inverter companies to create AC modules and power optimizer companies partnered with module manufacturers to create smart modules. In 2013 many solar panel manufacturers announced and began shipping their smart module solutions.

Theory and construction
See also: Solar cell

From a solar cell to a PV system
Photovoltaic modules consist of a large number of solar cells and use light energy (photons) from the Sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. Most modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells. The structural (load carrying) member of a module can be either the top layer or the back layer. Cells must be protected from mechanical damage and moisture. Most modules are rigid, but semi-flexible ones based on thin-film cells are also available. The cells are usually connected electrically in series, one to another to the desired voltage, and then in parallel to increase current. The power (in watts) of the module is the voltage (in volts) multiplied by the current (in amperes), and depends both on the amount of light and on the electrical load connected to the module. The manufacturing specifications on solar panels are obtained under standard conditions, which are usually not the true operating conditions the solar panels are exposed to on the installation site.

A PV junction box is attached to the back of the solar panel and functions as its output interface. External connections for most photovoltaic modules use MC4 connectors to facilitate easy weatherproof connections to the rest of the system. A USB power interface can also be used. Solar panels also use metal frames consisting of racking components, brackets, reflector shapes, and troughs to better support the panel structure.

Cell connection techniques
Solar modular cells need to be connected together to form the module, with front electrodes blocking the solar cell front optical surface area slightly. To maximize frontal surface area available for sunlight and improve solar cell efficiency, manufacturers use varying rear electrode solar cell connection techniques:

Passivated emitter rear contact (PERC) adds a polymer film to capture light
Tunnel oxide passivated contact (TOPCon) adds an oxidation layer to the PERC film to capture more light
Interdigitated back contact (IBC)[13]
Arrays of PV modules
A single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power; most installations contain multiple modules adding their voltages or currents. A photovoltaic system typically includes an array of photovoltaic modules, an inverter, a battery pack for energy storage, a charge controller, interconnection wiring, circuit breakers, fuses, disconnect switches, voltage meters, and optionally a solar tracking mechanism. Equipment is carefully selected to optimize output, energy storage, and reduce power loss during power transmission, and convert from direct current to alternating current.

Smart solar modules

Smart module
Smart modules are different from traditional solar panels because the power electronics embedded in the module offers enhanced functionality such as panel-level maximum power point tracking, monitoring, and enhanced safety.[citation needed] Power electronics attached to the frame of a solar module, or connected to the photovoltaic circuit through a connector, are not properly considered smart modules.

Several companies have begun incorporating into each PV module various embedded power electronics such as:

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) power optimizers, a DC-to-DC converter technology developed to maximize the power harvest from solar photovoltaic systems by compensating for shading effects, wherein a shadow falling on a section of a module causes the electrical output of one or more strings of cells in the module to fall to near zero, but not having the output of the entire module fall to zero.
Solar performance monitors for data and fault detection
Technology
Main articles: Crystalline silicon and Thin-film solar cell

Market-share of PV technologies since 1980
Most solar modules are currently produced from crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells made of polycrystalline or monocrystalline silicon. In 2021, crystalline silicon accounted for 95% of worldwide PV production,[16] while the rest of the overall market is made up of thin-film technologies using cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and amorphous silicon (a-Si).

Emerging, third-generation solar technologies use advanced thin-film cells. They produce a relatively high-efficiency conversion for a lower cost compared with other solar technologies. Also, high-cost, high-efficiency, and close-packed rectangular multi-junction (MJ) cells are usually used in solar panels on spacecraft, as they offer the highest ratio of generated power per kilogram lifted into space. MJ-cells are compound semiconductors and made of gallium arsenide (GaAs) and other semiconductor materials. Another emerging PV technology using MJ-cells is concentrator photovoltaics (CPV).

Thin film
This section is an excerpt from Thin-film solar cell.

Thin-film solar cells, a second generation of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells:
Top: thin-film silicon laminates being installed onto a roof.
Middle: CIGS solar cell on a flexible plastic backing and rigid CdTe panels mounted on a supporting structure
Bottom: thin-film laminates on rooftops
Thin-film solar cells are made by depositing one or more thin layers (thin films or TFs) of photovoltaic material onto a substrate, such as glass, plastic or metal. Thin-film solar cells are typically a few nanometers (nm) to a few microns (µm) thick–much thinner than the wafers used in conventional crystalline silicon (c-Si) based solar cells, which can be up to 200 µm thick. Thin-film solar cells are commercially used in several technologies, including cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS), and amorphous thin-film silicon (a-Si, TF-Si).

Solar cells are often classified into so-called generations based on the active (sunlight-absorbing) layers used to produce them, with the most well-established or first-generation solar cells being made of single- or multi-crystalline silicon. This is the dominant technology currently used in most solar PV systems. Most thin-film solar cells are classified as second generation, made using thin layers of well-studied materials like amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS), or gallium arsenide (GaAs). Solar cells made with newer, less established materials are classified as third-generation or emerging solar cells. This includes some innovative thin-film technologies, such as perovskite, dye-sensitized, quantum dot, organic, and CZTS thin-film solar cells.

Thin-film cells have several advantages over first-generation silicon solar cells, including being lighter and more flexible due to their thin construction. This makes them suitable for use in building-integrated photovoltaics and as semi-transparent, photovoltaic glazing material that can be laminated onto windows. Other commercial applications use rigid thin film solar panels (interleaved between two panes of glass) in some of the world’s largest photovoltaic power stations. Additionally, the materials used in thin-film solar cells are typically produced using simple and scalable methods more cost-effective than first-generation cells, leading to lower environmental impacts like greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in many cases. Thin-film cells also typically outperform renewable and non-renewable sources for electricity generation in terms of human toxicity and heavy-metal emissions.

Despite initial challenges with efficient light conversion, especially among third-generation PV materials, as of 2023 some thin-film solar cells have reached efficiencies of up to 29.1% for single-junction thin-film GaAs cells, exceeding the maximum of 26.1% efficiency for standard single-junction first-generation solar cells. Multi-junction concentrator cells incorporating thin-film technologies have reached efficiencies of up to 47.6% as of 2023.

Still, many thin-film technologies have been found to have shorter operational lifetimes and larger degradation rates than first-generation cells in accelerated life testing, which has contributed to their somewhat limited deployment. Globally, the PV marketshare of thin-film technologies remains around 5% as of 2023. However, thin-film technology has become considerably more popular in the United States, where CdTe cells alone accounted for nearly 30% of new utility-scale deployment in 2022.

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